Famous artists who suffered from mental illness (Psychology meets Art 1)
This is the first installment of my ‘Psychology meets Art’ feature in which I expore the relationship between these two domains. This post includes a list of famous artists who are to said to have suffered from mental illness and an explanation of how I think this has influenced their work.
- Vincent Van Gogh
Van Gogh suffered from epileptic seizures as a result of the amount of absinthe he drank. Art historians have studied his personal letters and noted that experienced very depressive states, which were followed by manic episodes where he showed extreme passion and determination towards his work. Could it be that he had bi-polar disorder? Some say he may have had schizophrenia. Many have tried to diagnose him but the answer is not known. Many of his late paintings show an optimism to return to good mental health. However, the painting below; ‘Wheat field with crows’- (1890) that depicted wheat fields under troubled skies reflects his melancholy feelings of extreme loneliness. The dark sky seems to represent a feeling of overshadowing doom. It was in fact in a wheat field like this that on the 27th July 1890 Vincent Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver.
2. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
Michelangelo suffered from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. He would isolate himself and work on his arts for very long periods of time. He refused to ever take off his boots. He also had a very short temper and would suffer from angry outbursts towards those who offended his beliefs.
3. Georgia O’Keeffe
Reportedly had clinical depression.
4. Pablo Picasso
Was also said to have had clinical depression.
5. Jackson Pollock
American abstract artist Jackson Pollock dealt with clinical depression. He experienced a nervous breakdown in 1938 and resorted to alcohol and substance abuse in order to cope with his debilitating self-doubt and a marriage in turmoil.
6. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes
His paintings reflected his depression with themes such as absurdity, meaninglessness, physical torment and death.
7. Edvard Munch
Many of Edvard Munch’s works depicted his depressive states. His period of paintings that showed dominant women devouring weak men like vampires were as a result of his obsession with his first love.
In the early 1900’s he became an alcoholic until, in 1908, he collapsed. As he was hearing hallucinatory voices and suffering paralysis on his left side, he was persuaded to check into a private sanitarium where he reduced alcohol intake and improved his mental state.
Self-portrait Between the Clock and the Bed (1940-42) his last self portrait before he died represented the fact that he had ‘hung back from the dance of life’. He is stood rigidly and awkward as if to apologise for using space next to his paintings that he referred to as his ‘children’ as he devoted his life to them, even through bouts of depression.
The list of not just artists but creative people in general, whose lives have been affected severely by their own ill mental health, is endless. Some seek refuge from reality in their creative works and others become ill because of their obsession with their art. It is said that mental health disorders such as bi-polar are associated with manic episodes of great creativity, followed by extreme emotional low points. There is no doubt that mental states, be it highs or lows, have inspired some of the greatest artwork in history.
What are your thoughts?